Thu, 24 December 2009
Inagininkas Instrumental Case
Hi there, I’m Raminta and I’m Jack and welcome back to Lithuanian Out Loud where we offer the world the Lithuanian language.
Photograph: The monument to the restoration of Lithuania's independence, "Lituania Restituta" first built in 1930, destroyed by Soviets, rebuilt in 1990. Ukmergė, Lithuania.
According to the article, “June 14, 1940. Why the Russians should apologize.”
On the 14th of June 1940, massive deportations of Lithuanians were started by the Soviet Union. In one week 17,730 people were deported from Lithuania to Russian gulags.
The unfortunate Lithuanians selected for transport were intellectuals and academics, political activists, businessmen and successful farmers, medics, lawyers, military leaders, teachers, and religious leaders.
Families had one hour to collect 100 kilograms of belongings and were transported to any one of 57 train stations. Common cattle cars awaited them for the long trip to Siberia.
The Soviets had planned to deport as much as 50% of the Lithuanian population but the Nazi invasion stopped their plans. Many Lithuanians viewed the Germans as saviors because the German invasion stopped the Russians.
When the Soviets forced the Germans out of Lithuania the deportations resumed. In 1948 alone more than 40,000 Lithuanians were shipped east in cattle cars; 11,066 were children.
Between 1940 and 1953 Lithuania lost one third of its population and the only thing that stopped the mass deportations was the death of Stalin in 1953.
Today, Russia refuses to discuss the matter and ignores Lithuania’s requests for apologies and reparations. Lithuania is requesting, at a minimum, moral recognition of the issue.
We’ve already gone over these declensions:
We’ve only got two more declensions remaining and we’ll do one of those today;
įnagininkas – the instrumental case.
In this episode we’ll be throwing a lot of new stuff at you but don’t worry, we’ll give you plenty of examples so you can understand what’s being presented. First off, we’ll go over some concepts. Today’s program is only the first in a series covering the instrumental case.
We use the instrumental case in many different ways. One way is to describe how one is transported, for example; to the restaurant we go by car or Rimantas goes to work by motorcycle. The car is the instrument by which we go to the restaurant and the motorcycle is the instrument by which Rimantas goes to work.
When a noun is declined with įnagininkas or the instrumental case, the noun is the instrument of the sentence. The instrumental case can be viewed as describing “by means of,” “by way of” or “using.”
Let’s go over the different instrumental endings or suffixes using singular nouns. We’ll go over plural nouns in another episode.
First, here are the singular masculine noun endings or suffixes…
singular nouns that end in –as change to –u
Now the feminine singular noun endings or suffixes…
singular nouns that end in –a change to –a
singular nouns that end in –ė, as in duktė, change to –eria or –erimi
before each group of examples we’ll go over some vocabulary
Valdemaras travels “by means of” a car Valdemaras keliauja automobiliu Simonas travels “by way of” a car Simonas keliauja automobiliu Diana travels “using” a car Diana keliauja automobiliu
Violeta goes “by means of” a bus Violeta važiuoja autobusu Valentina goes “by way of” a bus Valentina važiuoja autobusu Veronika goes “using” a bus Veronika važiuoja autobusu
The instrumental can also be used to describe movement “by way of,” “by means of,” or “using” a street, a path, a sidewalk, etcetera, or going through a park, a field, a valley, a tunnel, an alley, a river, a sea, a mountain pass, etcetera.
to go for a walk
to go (on foot)
Algis walks “by means of” the path
Algis eina taku
Giedrius walks “by way of” the path
Giedrius eina taku
Evaldas walks “using” the path
Evaldas eina taku
Justinas goes for a walk “by means of” the sidewalk
Justinas eina pasivaikščioti šaligatviu
Justas goes for a walk “by way of” the sidewalk
Justas eina pasivaikščioti šaligatviu
Neringa goes for a walk “using” the sidewalk
Neringa eina pasivaikščioti šaligatviu
a boat sails via the river
valtis plaukia upe
a ship sails using the river
laivas plaukia upe
a barge sails by means of the river
barža plaukia upe
Now let’s talk about professions. You can say, I am a doctor, or, aš esu gydytojas. I’m a policeman, aš esu policininkas. In these examples we are not using the instrumental case.
Using the instrumental case we would say, I work as a doctor – aš dirbu gydytoju. I work as a policeman – aš dirbu policininku. A profession is the instrument “by way of” or “by means of” a person makes a living. The key word in English here is the word, “as.” I work as a pilot. I work as a teacher.
a policeman, policewoman
here we’ll compare phrases using vardininkas with phrases using įnagininkas
I am a policeman
aš esu policininkas
aš dirbu policininku
aš esu lakūnas
aš dirbu lakūnu
aš esu gydytojas
aš dirbu gydytoju
aš esu teisininkas
aš noriu dirbti teisininku
aš esu mokytojas
aš noriu dirbti mokytoju
Justas yra televizijos komentatorius
Justas dirba televizijos komentatoriumi
Evaldas yra kontrolierius
Evaldas dirba kontrolieriumi
Some prepositions require the instrumental case such as the word “with” or in Lithuanian – su.
first, here’s some vocabulary
to eat with a knife and fork
valgyti su peiliu ir šakute
beef with bacon
jautiena su šonine
ice cream with chocolate
ledai su šokoladu
a liquid mixed with ammonia
skystis, sumaišytas su amoniaku
Antanas works with a shovel
Antanas dirba su kastuvu
I can live with Rimantas
galiu gyventi su Rimantu
Diana can travel with Justinas
Diana gali keliauti su Justinu
he works with pleasure
jis dirba su malonumu
Alright, that does it for our introduction to using the instrumental. On the next episode we’ll continue part II of exploring the instrumental case. We’ll see you in 2010. Happy New Year!
June 14, 1940. Why the Russians should apologize