Tue, 24 February 2009
Hi there, I’m Jack and I’m Raminta and welcome back to Lithuanian Out Loud where we offer the world the Lithuanian language.
Photograph: Nemunas River near Kryvicy
Raminta and The Best Job In The World
According to Wikipedia, the Nemunas is a major Eastern European river beginning in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Curonian Lagoon and then into the Baltic Sea at Klaipėda. The Nemunas marks the border between Lithuania and Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast. It is the 14th largest river in Europe, the largest in Lithuania and the 3rd largest in Belarus, it is navigable for most of its 900-kilometer length.
Today we’ll start to learn how to use Lithuanian adjectives. An adjective is a word that modifies a noun. For example, a car is a noun. What kind of car is it? We need an adjective to describe this noun. The car is expensive. Expensive is an adjective. An expensive car. A red car. An old car. A fast car.
Lithuanian adjectives can be masculine, feminine or neuter. Masculine adjectives are combined with masculine nouns and feminine adjectives are combined with feminine nouns. The neuter is used when you’re referring to something inspecific.
Additionally, adjectives are plural when combined with plural nouns. For today we’ll just focus on singular nouns combined with singular adjectives.
Lithuanian adjectives normally preceed the noun.
Lithuanian adjectives have three basic endings; the first, -as or –a, the second, -us or –u, and the third, -is or –ė.
the first group -as or –a has three genders – masculine, feminine and neuter
here are examples of –as and –a
the neuter form of this group ends in –a
the second group -us or –i has three genders – masculine, feminine and neuter
here are examples of –us and –i
the neuter form of this group ends in –u
the third group -is or –ė has only two genders – masculine and feminine
here are examples of –is and –ė
neuter form: none
The singular masculine adjectives end in –as –us or –is. Only –as and –us have a neuter ending.
Now let’s go through some examples so this makes more sense.
small mažas / maža
a small dog mažas šuo
a small country maža šalis
neuter example: how small! kaip maža!
-soft minkštas / minkšta
a soft armchair minkštas fotelis
a soft sofa minkšta sofa
neuter example: how soft! kaip minkšta!
-hard kietas / kieta
a hard muffin kietas keksas
a hard sofa kieta sofa
neuter example: how hard it is to sit here! kaip kieta čia sėdėti!
-clean švarus / švari
a clean beach švarus pliažas
a clean bathtub švari vonia
neuter example: how clean it is in the house! kaip švaru namuose!
-cheap pigus / pigi
a cheap bicycle pigus dviratis
a cheap dress pigi suknelė
neuter example: in this store everything is cheap - šioje parduotuvėje viskas pigu
-icy ledinis / ledinė
an icy pond ledinis tvenkinys
an icy river ledinė upė
neuter example: there is none
-silky šilkinis / šilkinė
a silky skirt šilkinis sijonas
a silky dress šilkinė suknelė
neuter example: there is none
-synthetic sintetinis / sintetinė
a synthetic chemical sintetinis chemikalas
a synthetic blouse sintetinė palaidinukė
the adjective didelis is an oddball and it doesn’t follow the normal rules
-big, heavy, large didelis / didelė
a big noise didelis triukšmas
a big structure didelė struktūra
Šaunuoliai! Excellent! You made it to the end of another episode! Puiku!